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Research Infrastructure

The following research facilities are part of the ECCSEL Research Infrastructure:
INFRADEN-3 Transnational Access
Institution Country Number Short Name & link to fact sheet Long Name Description & List of components Possible research areas
NTNU NO TA1.1 MEM-FAB Facilities to fabricate polymer-based membranes This infrastructure provides facilities and methods to fabricate polymer-based membranes in lab scale and pilot scale, including the spinning of hollow fibre membranes, carbonization to prepare carbon membranes and coating of thin composite membranes on flat sheet or hollow fibre supports. • Developing new and more efficient membranes for CO2 separation
• Facilities support broad techniques for the fabrication of polymer-based membranes
• Provides researchers the opportunity for ‘one-stop’ works in developing novel membranes of various materials or unique morphology that enhance the CO2 separation performance.
• Facilities are up to date and easy to operate, which enables users to conduct high quality research.
TA1.2 MEM-PERM Facilities to test membrane gas permeation performance This infrastructure provides facilities and methods to test membrane gas permeation performance at lab and pilot scale under different conditions, including single gas, mixed gas, gas separation in humidified conditions and at high pressures, with either flat sheet or hollow fibre membrane modules. • Testing gas permeation of membranes in different conditions
• Facilities provided are advanced and up to date, equipped with automatic controlling and indication system as well as devices for auto-sampling and auto data-recording
• Opportunity to test membrane gas permeation performances in different conditions with reliable and high quality data.
TA1.3 ABSKIN Absorption Kinetic Studies The package offers a possibility to measure absorption kinetics with string of discs apparatus, wetted wall column and with stirred cell. All apparatuses are suitable for loaded and unloaded solutions. • Measurement of thermodynamic data, like VLE and heat of absorption, needed for example in process modelling can be performed.
• Absorption kinetics including measurement of physical properties is needed for sizing of absorber.
• In-house activity based thermodynamic and kinetic models can be used to model the experimental results.
TA1.4 ABSDEG Solvent degradation laboratory Solvent degradation laboratory makes it possible to study fundamental solvent degradation. This installation includes three apparatus: The oxidative degradation in closed-batch reactor, one for thermal degradation tests and a new screening apparatus for oxidative degradation. • Degradation studies will give fundamental understanding of the solvent as well as indicate the solvent make-up costs.
TA1.5 ABSEQ Thermodynamic studies package The package offers a possibility to study the vapour-liquid equilibrium and heat of absorption. It has low temperature VLE apparatuses, and high temperature and pressure VLE apparatuses. Several reactor calorimeters are available. • Laboratory work with close co-operation with analytical laboratory (SINTEF Biotechnology), which makes it possible to analyse liquid samples for degradation products and amines.
• NMR can be used to find the speciation in the liquid.
TNO NL TA2.1 Mini Plant Mini Plant for solvent preparation & testing The setup of the Mini Plant consists of a skid with process equipment: absorber (exchange with membranes is possible), desorber, heat exchanger, pump, pipes, CO2 analyzers, flow meters and controller and other small equipment, an automatic data logging/operation system, and a computer (unit). The Mini Plant is located at the TNO lab in Delft. • Demonstrate new solvent types within reasonable timescales
• Mini Plant is equipped with the latest technologies regarding process monitoring and process measurement.
• Offers good accessibility, user friendly operations and a smart process data collection system
TA2.2 Qscan QSCAN solvent test street The Mini AutoClave (MAC) for quick scan purposes is a set-up for medium throughput vapour-liquid-equilibrium (VLE) equipment where six experiments can be performed simultaneously. An advantage is the relatively small volume of solvent needed to run a proper test. All six reactors can run independently of each other and can be started and stopped at any time. A typical measurement takes about 24 to 48 hours. • Variety of analytical equipment is available to determine gas and liquid composition
• Modelling tools are available to perform simulations of the underlying separation principles (thermodynamics, kinetics).
• Software tools are available to perform process design and development (flow sheeting and scale-up) as well as to perform technical and economic evaluations
TA2.3 CLC CLC fixed bed facility The chemical looping combustion (CLC) fixed bed facility consists of a tubular fixed bed reactor, with various sizes possible (up to 1 kW), and all required peripheral equipment. Continuous operation of the system alternately produces streams of hot depleted air and CO2/H2O. The system can also be adapted to be operated at elevated pressures. The CLC fixed bed facility is located at the TNO lab in Delft and can be relocated to another location • Demonstrate the looping of various metal/metal oxide beds through oxidizing and reducing conditions
• Various fuels and gas mixtures can be fed for the reducing step
• Provides insight into scaling up with the potential to use small (10 W) to medium (1 kW) size reactors
• Quick testing of material properties and degradation characteristics, applicable to both fixed bed and fluidized bed applications of CLC
TA2.4 High-P abs&des High pressure absorption and desorption pilot The pilot plant consists of an absorber, a conventional desorber and a membrane gas desorption unit (MGD), which can be operated in continuous cycle mode. The pilot test is skid mounted and is easily relocated, due to its compact design. The gas supply setup is flexible and easy to adjust to specific needs. The desorber can be equipped with commercial structured packing material. With the high pressure absorber and desorber pilot plant it is possible to demonstrate new solvents and their stability at different process conditions. • Demonstrate for new solvents their stability at different process conditions.
• The high pressure absorber and desorber pilot plant is equipped with the latest technologies regarding process monitoring and process measurement.
• Furthermore the pilot plant offers good accessibility, user friendly operations and a very user friendly process data collection system
UK TA3.1 TPRL Transport Properties Research Laboratory Focus is on multi-phase flow in natural and engineered, low and ultra-low permeability geomaterials (e.g. caprocks, well bore cements, halite and engineered clays), and their associated deformation behaviour. Measurements include: saturation and consolidation properties; intrinsic permeability (or transmissivity); anisotropy; specific storage; coupled flow parameters (e.g. osmotic permeability); capillary entry, breakthrough and threshold pressures; gas permeability function; drained and undrained compressibilities; and rheological (creep) properties. Laboratory experiments are performed under simulated in situ conditions (stress, pore pressure, temperature and chemical environment). • Study of fluid movement in ultra-low permeability media
• Unique BGS-manufactured equipment and experimental systems provide high-resolution and high accuracy data
• Physical properties are routinely examined in ultra-low permeability materials
• Capability in deformation and fluid flow relevant to CCS consists of a blend of standard and bespoke equipment with more than 15 experimental rigs.
• Stress states and temperature to be simulated across expected in situ reservoir conditions
• Tests can be conducted with pure water, brine, helium, carbon dioxide (gaseous, liquid, super critical and saturated solution) and nitrogen
TA3.2 RMPL Rock Mechanics and Physics Laboratory The facility specialises in advanced geotechnical rock engineering and geomechanical testing, including measurement of strength (triaxial and uniaxial), deformability, thermal properties, geophysical properties, permeability, porosity and density. • MTS 815 rock testing system
• Determination of the strength and deformability of right-circular cylinder rock specimens with diameters up to 54 mm under both unconfined and triaxial confined conditions
• Determination of permeability, P- and S-wave velocities, 6-channel acoustic emissions and Brazilian indirect tensile strength
• Acoustic emission tomography (from April 2016)
TA3.3 HTL Hydrothermal Laboratory The BGS Hydrothermal Laboratory enables the study of chemical reactions between fluids and rocks under conditions found in the top few kilometres of the Earth's crust. In its 30+ years, it has been at the centre of numerous investigations that require well-controlled conditions to study reaction processes under in-situ conditions (i.e. elevated temperatures and pressures). The lab contains a variety of equipment capable of maintaining controlled conditions for timescales of up to many years. Reactions are followed by various means, including: visual observations, monitoring fluid chemical changes over time, and detailed mineralogical analysis of the reaction products. Study of the chemical and mineralogical changes caused by stored CO2 on reservoir rocks, caprocks and the impact of stored CO2 on borehole infrastructure
• Batch reactors (various pressure/temperature capabilities, with or without fluid sampling facilities).
• High pressure/temperature rocking batch reactors (Dickson-type autoclaves).
• High pressure column reactors for flow-through studies.
• High pressure core flood reactors for flow-through studies.
• Mixed flow reactors for reaction rate studies.
• Fluidised bed reactors for low pressure reaction rate studies.
• High pressure, windowed reactors for optical studies.
TA3.4 Gas Mon Near-Surface Gas Monitoring Facility BGS facilities for the collection and measurement of gases in the near surface environment. This includes field and laboratory capability for measuring gases in the shallow subsurface (e.g. soils), fluxes from the soil into the atmosphere and determinations in the atmosphere just above the ground surface. Included are techniques for single measurements and systems capable of repeated (continuous) measurement. As well as gas monitoring equipment the facility includes techniques for collecting ancillary data to help interpret those measurements, such as weather stations. The facility includes a wide range of equipment and expertise for gas monitoring, particularly aimed at near surface monitoring in relation to CCS. Monitoring of near surface gases for CCS onshore needs to include a range of capabilities including:
• Wide area coverage to detect potential surface seepage of CO2 over the large surface footprint of a large scale (Mt/year)storage site
• Continuous monitoring of possible leakage pathways (e.g. wells and faults)
• Discrimination of gas source (is the CO2 coming from storage at depth or natural CO2 produced by near surface processes?)
• Quantification of any emissions of stored CO2.
• Scanning laser (CH4) for continuous monitoring of areas up to hundreds of metres in radius
• Mobile lasers (wide area coverage)
• Continuous flux and gas concentration  monitors
• Use of gas ratios (CO2 to O2, N2, and CH4)
• Lab facilities for C isotopes to discriminate the source of any CO2 anomalies identified
NO TA4.1 SINTEF SLab Sorbent laboratories for CCS Sorbent laboratories for CCS includes:
• High throughput material preparation and characterization
• High throughput solid material testing
• Volumetric adsorption Isotherm measurement units (From vacuum to 100 bar)
• Automated multicycle breakthrough units for sorbent evaluation
• Four-column Pressure-swing adsorption (PSA) unit
• Dual fluidized bed CLC rig
• Robots for material preparation by various techniques as well as Individual parallel thermal treatment of 48 samples
• Belsorp instruments (Mini, Max, HP and VC ) are used to measure single and dual component adsorption/desorption isotherms of various gases.
• Test sorbent samples at harsh conditions in an efficient way. Using an automated gas feeding and mixing system.
• Automated multi-cycle testing for evaluation of sorbent long term stability and kinetics at realistic conditions.
• Test out real PSA cycles in our fully automated four-column PSA unit.
• Evaluate oxygen carriers in a lab scale dual fluidized bed unit – also attrition resistance of the material.
TA4.2 SINTEF ChLab In situ characterization of sold materials for CCS Includes:
• Solid (Bruker Avance III 500 MHz wide bore spectrometer equipped with four probes for different applications) and liquid (Bruker Avance III 400 MHz spectrometer is available for liquid samples) state NMR
• In-situ powder X-Ray diffraction (PANalytical Empyrean instrument equipped with an in situ cell)
• In situ diffuse reflectance infrared spectroscopy with gas feeding system
• PANalytical Empyrean instrument equipped with an in situ cell can be used to get mechanistic information on sorbent function and possible degradation during operation.
• Bruker Avance III 500 MHz wide bore spectrometer equipped with four probes for different applications to study structural features of solid samples under various gas atmospheres.
• Bruker Avance III 400 MHz spectrometer is available for liquid samples equipped with one probe with extended tuning range – typically used to study kinetics and mechanisms of solvent based systems at relevant conditions.
TA4.3 SINTEF PPLab Powder processing laboratories for CCS Powders can be further processed to suitable morphologies and sizes by different methods. Mechanical sizing by crushing and sieving into the wanted particle size fraction, Freeze granulation, spray granulation, agglomeration, spray coating and spray drying (2015) are available techniques at different throughputs • Equipment for calcination and heat treatment in different atmospheres are available
• GLATT granulator
TA4.4 SINTEF Mlab Membrane laboratories for CCS The laboratory includes:
• Fabrication facilities for inorganic membranes
• Testing units for inorganic and organic membranes
• Sulphur laboratory for material and component testing
• Automated atmospheric and pressurised Thermal Gravimetric equipment (TG)
• CO2 capture; post- pre- and oxy combustion
• In-organic material synthesis, conditioning and characterisation
• Membrane fabrication and characterisation (including non-destructive techniques)
• Membrane and sorbent testing
TA4.5 SINTEF SDR Solvent Degradation Rig The SDR rig is a laboratory test rig built to study the degradation of amine solvents over time under simulated CO2 capture conditions. Execution of a process protocol should give a qualitative picture of what degradation products are formed for a given solvent system. Process protocols than can be run in the SDR rig consist of Standard, High Oxygen, High NOx and High Temperature Protocols The rig operates 24 hours for 14 weeks (4 process protocols):
• Standard Protocol: Objective is to measure degradation products of a specified solvent under normal operating condition for 5 weeks.
• High Oxygen Protocol: To study the effect of high O2 content in the flue gas on the degradation products gas from a specified solvent
• High NOx Protocol: Effect of high NOx (50 ppm) on the degradation products is studied for 3 weeks.
• High Stripper Temperature Protocol. Thermal degradation is studied in this protocol.
TA4.6 SINTEF Tiller Pilot Tiller CO2 Capture Pilot Plant The Tiller CO2 Capture Pilot Plant was commissioned in 2010 and has a propane burner (380 kW) providing flue gas to the plant and heat to the buildings. The column diameters in the plant are dimensioned to fit the amount of flue gas available and are quite small However, the design philosophy, including column heights, has been to otherwise design the plant as similar as possible to a full scale post combustion plant. • Solvent test campaigns
• Solvent emission tests with various contaminate including test with mist particles
• Advanced analysis of degradation products 
CIUDEN ES TA5.1 PISCO2 Pilot for Injection of CO2 in Soils The aim of this facility is to develop low cost sustainable biomonitoring tools for their application in CO2 storage projects. The main objective is to simulate diffuse leakages at the soil interface in order to identify efficient bioindicators of anomalous CO2 concentrations. The PISCO2 facility has been running since early 2012 where biological research is being developed and geochemical and flux movements inside the cell are currently being modelled and matched. • Test how small CO2 diffuse leakages can influence microorganisms, lichens and soils in general
• Find low cost sustainable bioindicators of CO2 concentrations in wide areas
• Laboratory for agricultural tests of the beneficial effects of low CO2 emissions.
• Test and calibrate measurement instruments such as accumulation chambers or any other device for soil-atmosphere interphase.
• Short courses for acquiring expertise on biomonitoring techniques and its associated role in the safety of CO2 storage
TA5.2 Transport  Rig Transport Test Rig at es.CO2 Technology Development Centre for CO2 Capture A CO2 closed-loop transport test rig designed, constructed and operated by CIUDEN. Its design covers a wide range of operating conditions compatible with the recommended general guidelines for CO2 transport. The transport rig aims to cover the aspects considered of interest in the field of CO2 transport and it intends to be a facility close to a real CO2 transport infrastructure.
The semi-industrial size facility also aims to be a reference at global level for terrestrial transport of CO2 though pipelines.
• Equipment and instrumentation behaviour, depressurization, flow assurance, material testing and any other safety CO2 transport operations can be arranged.
• Testing the effects on pipeline performance of the following parameters: CO2 composition, materials behaviour and process performance (corrosion, pressure and temperature changes, pressure drops in pipelines and accessories…).
• Unique size and ability to make dynamic tests on a certain CO2 flow in conditions similar to those of a real pipe that would allow the scale up of the results.
• Depressurization tests
• Impure CO2 streams tests
TA5.3 Hontomin TDP Technology Development Plant for CO2 Storage The Hontomín Technology Development Plant includes one injection well and a monitoring well, both of them located at a depth close to 1580m. Both deep wells are fully instrumented and further monitoring capacities include a shallower hydrogeological monitoring network, and a set of tools in surface, as 30 microseismic stations. The carbonate reservoir is in a dome-like structure, with the presence of faults and fractures. Key issues can be tested such as:
• Characterizing the permeability of the site at the scales relevant for CO2 storage
• Evaluating different CO2 injection strategies
• Determining the reliability of monitoring techniques at surface and at depth
• Establishing monitoring protocols to assist operators in preparing the proper monitoring plan
• Assisting the regulator to identify appropriate criteria for the approval of such plans.
• Upscaling activities from lab-scale or modelling approaches.
PGI-NRI PL TA6.1 PETRO-Lab PETRO-LAB This research infrastructure provides tools to assess lithology, mineralogy and elemental as well isotopic composition of rock samples. The facilities belong to PGI Central Chemical Laboratory (accredited according to PN/EN ISO/IEC 17025 - in the field of analysed chemical and physical properties and the analysed objects: water, wastewaters, soils, sediments, environmental and geological samples, plant materials) and PGI Micro-area Analysis Laboratory (isotopic, mineralogical and petrographical investigations, environmental protection studies, microbiology, and archaeology). The facilities and methods most relevant to the project are:
• ICP-OES (inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry),
• ICP-MS (inductively coupled plasma mass, spectrometer)
• SeaFast 3 - equipment for trace elements concentration and matrix (including borate) removal coupled to ICP-MS,
• FT-IR (Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy) with ATR and photoacoustic probes. Extended range suitable for mineralogical analysis (carbonate content),
• Elemental Analyzer (carbon, hydrogen, sulfur, nitrogen, chlorine and oxygen)
• Total Organic and Inorganic Carbon Analyzer in solid, non-aqueous samples 
• CAMECA SX 100 electron microprobe for qualitative and quantitative identification of minerals and their parageneses, phase composition of minerals, identification of diagenetic minerals, etc LEO 1430 scanning electron microscope with EDS (Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy) spectrometer for mineralogical and elemental analyses,
• Polarized light microscopes for planimetric analyses (minerals, clasts, pores) of rock samples,
• CITL Mk5 Optical Cathodoluminescence Microscope Stage for analyses of cement of rock samples,
• SHRIMP IIe/ (Sensitive High Resolution Ion Micro Probe II Multi-Collector) for isotopic analyses of rock samples
TA6.2 GEOPH-Lab GEOPH-Lab This infrastructure provides tools for monitoring of shallow subsurface as well as groundwater-soil system with the use of a suite of geophysical methods. Tools for soil gas and atmospheric CO2 monitoring as well as remote sensing tools are also listed there as a part of comprehensive monitoring suite. The tools and methods most relevant to the project are:
• Micro-gravity meter for assessment of density distribution within the subsurface (CO2 injection changes density distribution within the subsurface though the effect is very small in case of a pilot injection)
• ERT (Electrical Resistivity Tomography) and DC (Direct Current) Resistivity for assessment of properties of groundwater-soil system/shallow subsurface (useful in an unlikely case of CO2 leakage, during pilot injection, into a shallow aquifer)
• GPR (Ground Penetrating Radar) and EM (Electromagnetic) Conductometer for assessment of properties of (the top) groundwater-soil system (useful in an unlikely case of CO2 leakage, during pilot injection, into the top part of groundwater-soil system)
• Engineering (shallow) seismic for imaging of the groundwater-soil system/shallow subsurface
• CRDS Analyzer for Isotopic Carbon in CO2 for measurements of soil gas and monitoring station for measurements of CO2 content in atmosphere (at the injection site),GC-FID gas chromatograph
• Remote sensing tools - PSI (Persistent Scattered Interferometry - methodology of the TERRAFIRMA project) method, measuring ground motion, basing on satellite images
OGS IT TA7.1 DeepLab DeepLab Sea Floor Landers  for meteooceanographic physical and geochemical data collection OGS has developed and used a series of support vehicles for collecting meteooceanographic physical and geochemical data, among which a new family of DeepLab Sea Floor Landers. These stainless steel stations are equipped with an underwater telemetry system with 5 miles range able to control the release of a buoy for the recovery of the lander and in the current configuration are equipped with base instruments to measure temperature, conductivity, pressure, dissolved oxygen, pH, dissolved CO2 , sea currents on the water column every 0.5 m and to estimate waves height and direction. Use DeepLab Sea Floor Lander to survey and define the CO2 baseline
Use of the Panarea natural laboratory (TA7.1a) where thermo-magmatic CO2 is leaking at substantial rates from the seafloor at water depths ranging from 5 to 30 m to:
• Study gas migration in different structural and geological settings
• Decipher the dynamics of gas bubble and droplet plumes
• Understand the impact of CO2 on benthic organisms and marine ecosystems
• Test and improve CO2 monitoring techniques
Planning surveys, eventual installation of additional equipment, calibration of these new instruments by the OGS Oceanographical Calibration Laboratory(OCL), deployment at sea, maintenance and logistic support, pre-processing of the data and their upload to the internet for remote experiments
TA7.1a Panarea Natural Laboratory Study the impact of CO2 on benthic organisms and marine ecosystems Panarea is a natural laboratory where thermo-magmatic CO2 is leaking at substantial rates from the seafloor at water depths ranging from 5 to 30 m. This natural laboratory provides the opportunity to study gas migration in different structural and geological settings. It can be used to study the ascent of CO2 through sedimentary strata, to decipher the dynamics of gas bubble and droplet plumes, to understand the impact of CO2 on benthic organisms and marine ecosystems, and to test and improve CO2 monitoring techniques. Use of the Panarea natural laboratory where thermo-magmatic CO2 is leaking at substantial rates from the seafloor at water depths ranging from 5 to 30 m to:
• Study gas migration in different structural and geological settings
• Decipher the dynamics of gas bubble and droplet plumes
• Understand the impact of CO2 on benthic organisms and marine ecosystems
• Test and improve CO2 monitoring techniques
TA7.2 Aircraft Research aircraft equipped with high-tech remote sensing instruments The Piper Seneca II aircraft, of property of OGS, is managed by a team of expert researchers and technicians. It is equipped with the most advanced remote sensing instruments:
• Lidar sensor Riegl LMS-Q560 (full waveform digitizer)
• Hyperspectral sensor SpecimAisa Eagle 1K (Visible Near Infrared field)
• Thermal camera Nec TS9260 (from 8 to 13 μm)
• Digital camera Canon EOS 1Ds MkIII (21 million pixels)
• Ultraportable Greenhouse Gas Analyzer (CO2, CH4, H2O)
The performance of the installation is very high.
• The aircraft can operate over the whole European territory.
• Perform accurate remote sensing surveys over wide areas, onshore and offshore (especially coastal areas).
• Data collected can be easily geographically referenced and integrated with other data collected over the natural field laboratories, for joint analysis. OGS personnel will organize the logistics and will decide the most proper time and atmospheric conditions for the acquisition, in accordance with the user.
• If necessary, training on processing and interpretation of remote sensing data will be provided
TA7.3 BioMarineLab Ecological laboratory for microcosm / mesocosm experiments The OCE Division of OGS offers a wide range of laboratories and technical and scientific facilities. This installation is equipped for studies in the marine biology field concerning biogeochemical analysis of sediments and overlayer water, characterization of plankton community from prokaryotes to zooplankton, characterization of benthic community from prokaryotes to macrobenthos, identification of the role of biological activities in the release (community respiration processes) or in the uptake (photosynthetic processes of phytoplankton and microphytobenthos) of CO2 in the water column and at the sediment-water interface, evaluation of microbial activities variation as consequence of CO2 concentration changes, determination of prokaryotic community structure, toxicological and physiological responses of invertebrates. • The BIOMARINE LAB installation is located in the Gulf of Trieste - Northern Adriatic Sea – Italy.
• Analytical activities carried out in the Microbiological, Ecology, Primary Productivity, and Biogeochemistry Laboratories are offered by this installation
• The technical and logistic support offered to the users will be guaranteed both inside the laboratories and during the field activities.
NO TA 8.1 CLC Hot Rig Chemical Looping Combustion Rig The CLC rig is a Double Loop Circulating Fluidized Bed reactor system. The design values are 150 kW gaseous fuels input and reactor temperature of 1000°C. The rig consists of an Air Reactor (AR) and a Fuel Reactor (FR), interconnected by divided loop-seals and a bottom lifter. The reactor design is flexible as the reactors can be run individually because of the divided loop seals, and the fuel reactor can both be run as a CFB and as a bubbling bed because of the possibilities of using the bottom lifter. The reactors are 6 m tall with internal diameters 230mm and 154mm for AR and FR, respectively.  • The CLC rig is a rather large laboratory rigs and the influence of small-scale effects is less pronounced and the results will be more relevant for scale-up to larger plants.
• The facility is well suited to perform tests of different oxygen carriers and with the fuel reactor operating in different fluidization modes.
• Assessment of fuel conversion, oxygen carrier's attrition and other important characteristics of the CLC process through exhaust gas emissions measurements and particle sampling during operation.
TA 8.2 HIPROX High Pressure Oxy-Fuel Combustion Facility The High Pressure Oxy-fuel combustion facility (HIPROX) is a pressurized combustion rig for the study of combustion in oxy-fuel atmospheres, i.e. mixture of CO2 and O2 oxidizers. The combustion chamber is particularly suited for gas turbine type combustion systems, where the gas streams can be distributed between primary and dilution zones. The defined power load with methane or natural gas as fuel is 125 kW at 10 bar with pre-heating of CO2 up to 300 C at 90 g/s. The installation can also be operated with air which can be heated up to 400 C at 150 g/s. The flexibility of the installation is such as custom design burner can be adapted to the pressurized unit, allowing external users to bring a burner provided it has followed our construction specifications and necessary approval. • Assessment of the general combustion performance of oxy-fuel related processes, through the measurements of pollutants emissions or impurities, flame stability, thermo-acoustic instabilities, and in-chamber heat transfer.
• The parameters that can be easily varied are the CO2 and oxygen distribution, individual stream temperature, and the conventional combustion parameters (power, equivalence ratio).
• Advanced laser based in-flame measurements are also possible through the 4 way optical access, but are not included in the RI cost.
TA 8.3 CO2Mix - VLE Facility for accurate phase equilibrium measurements of CO2-rich mixtures The CO2Mix phase equilibrium facility is specifically designed for highly accurate phase equilibrium measurements. An analytical technique is used, where the composition of all fluid phases present in the cell at equilibrium is measured. The facility is primarily designed for vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE), but can also be used for systems with other phases present. The pressure and temperature range of the setup are from -60 to 150 °C and from 3 to 200 bar, respectively. Material selections and ventilation are adapted to the most relevant impurities in CCS, which could include toxic, moderately corrosive as well as explosive impurities. The fluid phases are sampled and injected directly into a gas chromatograph (GC) for chemical analysis.
In a separate installation, a setup is available for highly accurate gravimetric CO2 mixture preparation in 10 l gas cylinders.
• Highly accurate phase equilibrium measurements that can be used to improve equations of state for fluids involved in CCS
• Gravimetrically prepared gas mixtures can be used to calibrate composition measurements (e.g. in analytical VLE experiments) but can also be used in other types of experiments requiring a mixture with known composition to high accuracy.
CERTH GR TA 9.1 CERTH CLC  Chemical Looping Combustion facility CERTH has very recently constructed a semi-pilot unit for the Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC) process, which is included in the general area of CCS technologies. The process can be described as combustion of fuel in the absence of air. The oxygen is provided by the solid oxygen carrier (lattice oxygen), thus pure CO2 is released in the flue gases (without the need for N2 separation) which can be captured and stored more efficiently. The unit includes both a fixed and a fluid bed reactor configuration, which can utilized alternatively in a furnace heating up to 1500°C. The general mission of the unit is the evaluation of novel, environmental friendly and cost effective CLC materials by testing their ability to retain stable performance (oxygen transfer capacity) under a large number of consecutive reduction / oxidation cycles. The reduction is realized by using methane for the fuel combustion step, while subsequent oxidation of the solid (reloading the consumed lattice oxygen) is performed with gaseous oxygen.
TA 9.2 CERTH Storage facilities CO2 Storage facilities The CERTH Storage infrastructure provides facilities for the characterisation of a storage site. That includes an X-Ray Diffractometer for the mineralogical characterisation of the reservoir and cap rock, a spectrophotometer for the chemical analysis of the water samples, a CHNS analyser for the determination of the carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and sulphur. Moreover, the CERTH Storage is equipped with an Atomic Adsorption Spectrometer (AAS) for the determination of chemical elements and a calorimeter for the measuring of the high heating value of coal and lignite samples. Proof of concept experiments, heat balance studies, combustion and gasification studies, mineralogical and petrographical examination, cores/samples studies, etc.
The laboratory is certified with ISO17025 for the determination of: moisture, ash, volatiles, total moisture, chlorine, CHNS, heating value, ash metals, as well as the biogenic fraction of SRF fuels.
• Promotion, implementation and improvement of “cleaner” coal combustion technologies (CCTs).
• Minimization of pollutants including fly ash, other by-products utilization and CCS technologies.
• Promotion and enhancement of gasification and hydrogen production technologies.
IT TA 10.1 COHYGEN COHYGEN (Coal to Hydrogen Generation) pilot plant The COHYGEN (Coal to Hydrogen Generation) pilot plant was developed in 2008 in order to study and optimize a syngas treatment process for combined production of hydrogen and electrical energy with CO2 capture. It is located in the Sotacarbo Research Centre in Carbonia (South-West Sardinia, Italy). The COHYGEN pilot plant is based on a 300 mm diameter fixed-bed up-draft gasifier, equipped with several sections for syngas treatment and both power generation and hydrogen production with CO2 capture. The plant is extremely flexible and suitable for several kinds of experimental tests. • Availability of basic services as air, steam, gas, electricity supply
• Extended online monitoring and data acquisition of all operative plant parameters
• Gas analysis equipment that will enable users to conduct high quality research
• Laboratories for off line analysis of solid and liquid materials
ETH Zürich  CH TA11.1 ETH-BAL Adsorption Equilibrium Measurement Balance The RI's central piece is a magnetic suspension balance (Rubotherm, Germany). The balance allows for the measurement of the adsorbed excess amount on a sample, as well as the density of the adsorbing gas phase. The sample chamber of the balance is integrated into a temperature and pressure controlled circuit that allows the measurement of the gas phase composition, thereby enabling the measurement of multicomponent adsorption. Direct measurements of gas phase densities, as well as measurements of gas phase composition. The system has been designed for pressures up to 300 bar and temperature up to 200 °C.
The installations are designed for CO2 capture research. In-house activity based thermodynamic and kinetic models can be used to model the experimental results. Additionally in house lab equipment for offline analysis of solids related to crystallization research (XRD, TGA, SEM, PSD) can be used to find the speciation in the solids.
TA11.2 ETH-PSA Two column lab PSA setup This infrastructure provides facilities and methods to conduct breakthrough experiments as well as full PSA cycles. The columns (height: 1.2 m; inner diameter: 0.25 m) are manufactured in-house from two concentric stainless steel pipes that act as a jacketed column and are equipped with thermostats enabling control of the column temperature. Five thermocouples are placed regularly inside each column. Facilities and methods to conduct breakthrough experiments as well as full PSA cycles The PSA lab pilot plant was built in house and is therefore very flexible. Adaptation and small changes can be easily implemented. The mass spectrometer has a very high resolution (0.1 s), which allows to monitor also fast processes
The installations are designed for CO2 capture research. In-house activity based thermodynamic and kinetic models can be used to model the experimental results. Additionally in house lab equipment for offline analysis of solids related to crystallization research (XRD, TGA, SEM, PSD) can be used to find the speciation in the solids.
TA11.3 ETH Min-Carb Mineral carbonation: flue gas mineralization unit The unit allows for parametric kinetic studies of mineral dissolution and precipitation reactions. The RI is a temperature (30-180°C) and pressure (3.6/7 – 40/150 bar) controlled continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) with the feature of gas flow through at elevated pressure and any composition (e.g. synthetic flue gas). Residence times for reactor solution and gas phase can be adjusted independently. The rig is automated via LabViewTM routine, hence experiments can be performed in stand-alone mode. Direct CO2 removal from flue gas by mineralization using various magnesium and/or calcium containing source materials (activated minerals, industrial residues). Its uniqueness lies in the high pressure liquid and gas flow-through set-up, with innovative solid sample loading system.
The installations are designed for CO2 capture research. In-house activity based thermodynamic and kinetic models can be used to model the experimental results. Additionally in house lab equipment for offline analysis of solids related to crystallization research (XRD, TGA, SEM, PSD) can be used to find the speciation in the solids.
TA11.4 ETH Conf-Perm High pressure hydrostatic flow cell The setup is designed to measure permeability (gas or fluids, or supercritical fluids) of samples and in the same time to record ultrasound wave propagation within the sample. The measurements are performed at high confining pressure (up to 100MPa) and temperature (up to 100°C). The heart of the setup is a hydrostatic cell, designed to accommodate cylindrical samples of 2.5 cm in diameter and up to 3 cm in length. • Possibility to measure a wide variety of physical parameters, such as density, porosity, failure under compression and tension conditions in the same laboratory together with the permeability rig. Allparameters can be measured under high confining pressure and temperature.
• Analytical facilities such optical and electron microscopy, XRD & XRF, CT-scan, are easily accessible.
GIG PL TA12.1 GIG-HPTGA High pressure thermogravimetric analyzer The high pressure thermogravimetric analyser installation coupled with mass spectrometer allowing for experimental verification of processes of thermochemical conversion of solid fuels including fossil fuels, biomass and wastes. The gaseous media applied include air, oxygen, steam and carbon dioxide. It operates under isothermal and dynamic conditions. The max operating temperature is 1350C at the atmospheric pressure and 1100C at the max operating pressure of 4MPa. • Capability of thermogravimetric measurements to be performed under high pressure. It is equipped with automatic control and indicating system, including automated gas dosing, data acquisition and recording.
• It enables for application of wide variety of gaseous media and for performing tests on samples considerable larger than in conventional TGA analysers (of grams).
• Tests on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels may be performed including studies on the in-situ carbon dioxide capture, gasification to hydrogen-rich gas and gasification with carbon dioxide, as examples of the studies in the field of CCS research.
TA12.2 GIG-FBR Fixed bed reactor The fixed bed reactor installations offers the possibility to perform experimental studies on thermochemical conversion of solid fuels at the operating conditions of the temperature of up to 900C and pressure up to 5MPa in the fixed-bed reactor of 0.8L volume. The process of thermochemical conversion of solid fuels including combustion, gasification and pyrolysis can be performed. Performing studies in the field of clean coal technologies, including fossil fuels, biomass and waste gasification, combustion and pyrolysis, with the emphasis put on various aspects of the process optimization, including:
• CO2 emission reduction by application e.g. of various feeding materials (including fuel blends of fossil fuels and biomass/waste).
• CO2 capture with applications of various sorbents
The process parameters are automatically controlled and gas composition data is automatically acquired and recorded.
Samples of a few dozen of g may be applied.
TA12.3 GIG-MBR Pilot-scale moving bed reactor The pilot-scale moving bed reactor is designed to perform large scale tests on gasification of solid fuels at the temperature of up to 1200C and under the pressure of up to 3MPa. It gives the possibility to tests gasification process and in-situ carbon dioxide capture process at larger scale, thus reducing the possible scale-effects. Gaseous media like air, oxygen, and carbon dioxide may be applied. Large scale gasification tests contributing to the development of zero emission coal processing technology in energy application.
The dedicated research area covered include:
• Fossil fuels gasification optimization
• CO2 capture
NO TA13.1 SINTEF PR – SCAL Core Flood (SCAL) laboratory The special core analysis laboratory consists of several high pressure flooding rigs. The flooding rigs are equipped to perform 2- and 3-phase floods on core samples up to a pressure of 700 bars and temperature of 160°C with a maximum core length of 120 cm (Fig. 1). Studies may include compositional analysis of produced fluids as well as additional chemical analysis of fluids and characterization of the core material. Additionally, flooding experiments can be run with in-situ measurements of fluid saturation by gamma attenuation techniques. The laboratory has access to X-ray tomography for rock characterization as well as for in-situ fluid visualization. The laboratory offers a wide range of services and special research type of experiments including:
• Steady-state and un-steady state 2- and 3-phase core flooding relative permeability experiments
• Capillary pressure measurements
• Capillary entry pressure measurements
• Porous plate experiments
• Migration and diffusion type of experiments for fluid transport in porous media.
• Core flooding experiments for measurements of displacement efficiencies (EOR, etc.)
• In-situ fluid saturation in core flooding experiments
• Rock wettability tests and contact angle measurements
TA13.2 SINTEF PR – pVT Fluid (pVT) laboratory The fluid laboratory consists of various fluid cells and apparatus for fluid studies:
• Automated pVT-cell up to 700 bars and 150 °C
• Special HPHT cells with working conditions up to 1400 bars and 210 °C
• Automated slim tube apparatus (700 bars, 150 °C)
• IFT cells (pendant drop, laser light scattering)
• Diffusion cell (temperature- and compositional gradients)
• Viscometers for HTHP conditions
• Additional fluid properties and characterization
The laboratory offers a wide range of services and special research type of experiments including:
Preparation and recombination of fluids
• Fluid pVT studies (phase envelope, bubble point, fluid formation factor, compressibility, solution gas fluid ratio, etc.)
• Fluid properties like density, viscosity, molecular weight, composition
• Slim tube studies of miscibility
• Surface and interfacial tension measurements
• Diffusion measurements
BRGM FR TA14.1 BIOREP Monitoring of microbiological and geochemical processes in high pressure and dynamic conditions The BIOREP facility is a high pressure set up to perform percolation and transfer experiments on fluid-rock interactions under a large range of pressure and temperature conditions, while continuously monitoring geochemical and bio-geochemical evolution. The facility is particularly adapted to monitor biological system evolution during the experiment. Thanks to its modular and compartmentalized conception, BIOREP allows a wide range of experiment to study microbiological and geochemical processes with in situ conditions – typical for CO2 storage or related to (well, overburden condition).